BULKING AGENTS or FILLERS

I am often asked why zero calorie sweeteners have

maltodextrin, erythritol or even sugars as ingredients.

Here is why.

Since high-intensity sweeteners (HIS) provide intense sweet taste with tiny volume, sugar substitutes in stores often have carriers, fillers or bulking agents so they can have an overall resemblance to table sugar. Consider stevia leaf extract for example. Just 1/64 of a teaspoon is equal one teaspoon of table sugar. The basic idea is that something is needed to fill in the empty space created in the spoon when using HIS, replacing the bulking effect that is lost when sugar is removed.

 

Fillers are carbohydrates. They may or may not be sweet. They add bulk (weight and volume) to sugar substitutes, and minimal calories and carbohydrates to each serving. "No-calorie sweeteners" meet FDA standards for no-calorie foods if they provide <5 calories per serving.

The role of fillers in sugar substitutes involves:

  • make them spoonable and pourable

  • improve their mouthfeel (body and smoothness)

  • improve taste; mask off-flavors

  • provide sweetness synergy (boost sweetness).

You should note that most sweeteners in stores have just a hint of HIS. The weight ratio between fillers and HIS is, in some cases, 200 to 2000 (fillers) to about 1 (HIS). This means that although almost 99% of the weight comes from the filler(s), 70 to 99% of the sweetness comes from the HIS.

 

The following fillers are used in sweeteners:

  • sugars (glucose, lactose)

  • polyols (erythritol, xylitol, glycerin)

  • rare sugars (allulose, tagatose)

  • soluble fibers (inulin, fructooligosaccharides)

  • polysaccharides (maltodextrin)

Other ingredients, besides bulking agents, may be added to sweeteners:

  • Natural flavor (it is a broad term so read the law defining it here) improves the taste and mask off flavors. It is the secret ingredient in many products such as "natural flavors from the peel of the orange" here, here, here, and here. Cream of tartar is also used to help reduce the level of sweeteners' aftertaste. 

  • Preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate, grapefruit extract) maintain freshness, specially in liquid sweeteners.

  • Anti-caking agents (calcium silicate aka silica) absorb water, preventing the formation of lumps and making powdered/granulated products flow easily out of their packages.

  • Binders (cellulose) are used in products available in tablet form. They act like a glue that makes ingredients stick together.

 
Fillers or Bulking Agents: Not Calorie Free

The main ingredients making up most zero calories sweeteners you buy in stores are: filler(s) + high intensity sweetener(s). Be aware that fillers add minimal calories and carbohydrates only if you are measuring amounts close to one serving of the product, but not when measuring in cups. 

 

A serving size, which you find on the Nutrition Facts Label, is usually the amount of sweetener (powder, granules, or crystals) with sweetness equivalent to one or two teaspoons (tsp) of table sugar. To find how a serving size compares to table sugar, you need to look for a conversion chart on the product's label.

 

Refer to the examples below to understand the difference between calories in a serving versus calories in a cup of zero calorie products. I want you to keep in mind that one cup of these products does offer significantly less calories than table sugar (one cup of sugar provides about 750 calories) but it is not zero calories

Splenda Granulated has only two ingredients: a filler (maltodextrin) and a HIS (sucralose). By law, it may be labeled as 'no calorie sweetener' because one serving (1 tsp) provides less than 5 cal. Splenda Granulated is made up predominantly of maltodextrin (4 cal per gram). Since one serving has 0.5g of maltodextrin, it provides has 1.98 cal and is rounded to zero in the Nutrition Facts label. However, a cup (48 tsp) of Splenda provides 95 calories.

The image below shows another example. Swerve Granular is made up predominantly of erythritol (0.4 cal per gram). One tsp of Swerve Granular contains 4 grams of erythritol, providing 1.6 cal which, by law, may be rounded to zero and labeled as 'zero calories'. Keep in mind that a cup (48 tsp or 190 grams) of Swerve Granular has approximately 70 calories.  

 
INGREDIENT COMPOSITION

Sweeteners are availbale to you in a wide range of ingredient composition. For stevia alone, I have found the following: 

I list below combinations of ingredients in zero calorie products containing artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, saccharin), natural sweeteners (stevia and monk fruit), and blends that measure like sugar on a 1 to 1 ratio.

To simplify, I do not list the non-sweet ingredients that might be present for the following reasons: (1) to improve taste and maintain freshness, such as naturals flavors and preservatives (sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate), (2) to reduce the level of HIS aftertaste (cream of tartar), (3) anti-caking agents (calcium silicate) and, (4) binders (cellulose). 

List of Zero Calorie Sweeteners

 

(Fillers or bulking agents shown in parenthesis as +)

 

  • Stevia (pure stevia leaf extract, dried stevia leaf)

  1. Stevia leaf extract powder (no fillers)

  2. Stevia leaf dried and finely diced (no fillers)

 

  1. Stevia (flavor and/or preservatives)

  2. Stevia (+ erythritol)

  3. Stevia (+ glycerin)

  4. Stevia (+ maltodextrin)

 

  1. Stevia (+ erythritol)

  2. Stevia (+ xylitol)

  3. Stevia (+ glycerin)

 

  1. Stevia (+ inulin and/or FOS)

  2. Stevia (+ IMO)​​​

 

  1. Stevia (+ tagatose)

  2. Stevia (+ allulose)​​

  1. Stevia (+ glucose)

  2. Stevia (+ cellulose)​​

  3. Stevia (+ maltodextrin)

 

  1. Monk Fruit + Stevia (no fillers)

  2. Monk Fruit + Stevia liquid (preservatives and/or flavor)

  3. Monk Fruit + Stevia (+ erythritol)

  4. Monk Fruit + Stevia (+ eryhtritol + inulin)

  5. Monk Fruit + Stevia (+ allulose)

  6. Monk Fruit + Stevia (+ IMO + tagatose)

 

  1. Monk Fruit powder (no fillers)

  2. Monk Fruit liquid (preservatives and/or flavor)

  3. Monk Fruit (+ erythritol)

  4. Monk Fruit (+ glucose)

  5. Monk Fruit (+ glycerin)

  6. Monk Fruit (+ maltodextrin)

 

  1. Sucralose powder (no fillers)

  2. Sucralose liquid (preservatives)

  3. Sucralose (+ glucose + maltodextrin)

  4. Sucralose (+ erythritol)

  5. Sucralose (+ xylitol + dextrose + maltodextrin)

  6. Sucralose (+ tagatose + lactose or isomalt)

 

  1. Aspartame powder (no fillers)

  2. Aspartame (+ glucose)

  3. Aspartame  with or without Acesulfame K (+ glucose + maltodextrin)

  4. Aspartame + Acesulfame K (+ lactose + cellulose)

 

  1. ​​​​​Saccharin Liquid (preservatives)

  2. Saccharin (+ glucose and/or maltodextrin)

  1. Maltodextrin blend (+ stevia or monk fruit or aspartame/acesulfame K or sucralose)

  2. Erythritol blend (+ stevia or monk fruit or rare sugars or oligosaccharides)

Stevia (stevia leaf extract sweetener) has the most brand names and is available in twenty different formulations.

Erythritol is the most used bulking agent in sweeteners; check them out here

Copyright © 2020  WhatSugar Blog by Adriane Campos 

Everywhere in the USA | Based in Richmond,VA | Email me at info@whatsugar.com

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